Thursday, September 28, 2017

porcupine quill artifacts

Share with your students a selection of quill decorated, Native American artifacts in a slide show or newsletter or print them out to include in a journal.  Back to the Index.
Man's quilled buckskin vest, Oglala Sioux, South Dakota. CA, 1880


Quill Decorated Deerskin Moccasins


Quill Decorated Knife Sheaths


Woven quillwork on caribou hide, left - flat pouch, center - knife sheath, right - pouch

Quill decorated birchbark box and cover from Nova Scotia

Wednesday, August 9, 2017

clip art of native american baskets

       Share with your students a selection of Native American artifacts in a slide show or newsletter or print them out to include in a journal. The following artifacts are from the Chetimacha, Wintun and Tulare tribes. Back to the Index.

Cane baskets of the Chetimacha Natives, Louisiana. In the National Museum
"Sitting" type of cradle used by the Wintun Native Americans of Northern California
Upper, Ancient ceremonial basket of exquisite workmanship
 from Santa Barbara County, California. Lower, Tulare trinket
 basket from the Tulare Native Reservation, California.
Both are in the National Museum.

material culture of north american plains indians

       Share with your students a selection of Native American artifacts in a slide show or newsletter or print them out to include in a journal. The following artifacts are from the Blackfoot and Dakota tribes. Back to the Index.
Medicine pipe of the Blackfoot

Wrapped medicine pipe of the Blackfoot

A buffalo hide shield from the Northern Blackfoot
Bag decorated with porcupine quills and beads from the Dakota

Fleshing tools. (The two short fleshers are of bone; the one on
the left is of iron; and that on the right, of bone, with an iron blade.)
A woman's dress of elkskin
A meat drying rack from the Blackfoot
Stone-headed pounders

A man's shirt from the Blackfoot

Sunday, June 4, 2017

anatomical portrait study lesson

The first sheet of the assignment,
the skull and the eye balls. 

Description: Our art class will study and illustrate the basic structure of the human head for this assignment. Students should accurately diagram and label the bone and tissue layers beneath the skin on three separate pieces of drawing paper.
      Human anatomy, which, with physiology and biochemistry, is a complementary basic medical science is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. Anatomy is subdivided into gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy. Gross anatomy is the study of anatomical structures that can be seen by unaided vision. Microscopic anatomy is the study of minute anatomical structures assisted with microscopes, which includes histology and cytology. Anatomy, physiology and biochemistry are complementary basic medical sciences which are usually taught together.
      In some of its facets human anatomy is closely related to embryology, comparative anatomy and comparative embryology, through common roots in evolution; for example, much of the human body maintains the ancient segmental pattern that is present in all vertebrates with basic units being repeated, which is particularly obvious in the vertebral column and in the rib cage, and can be traced from very early embryos.
      The human body consists of biological systems, that consist of organs, that consist of tissues, that consist of cells and connective tissue.
      The history of anatomy has been characterized, over a long period of time, by a continually developing understanding of the functions of organs and structures in the body. Methods have also advanced dramatically, advancing from examination of animals through dissection of preserved cadavers to technologically complex techniques developed in the 20th century.
      Generally, physicians, dentists, physiotherapists, nurses, paramedics, radiographers, artists, and students of certain biological sciences, learn gross anatomy and microscopic anatomy from anatomical models, skeletons, textbooks, diagrams, photographs, lectures, and tutorials. The study of microscopic anatomy can be aided by practical experience examining histological preparations under a microscope; and in addition, medical and dental students generally also learn anatomy with practical experience of dissection and inspection of cadavers A thorough working knowledge of anatomy is required by all medical doctors, especially surgeons, and doctors working in some diagnostic specialties, such as histopathology and radiology.
      Human anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry are basic medical sciences, which are generally taught to medical students in their first year at medical school. Human anatomy can be taught regionally or systemically; that is, respectively, studying anatomy by bodily regions such as the head and chest, or studying by specific systems, such as the nervous or respiratory systems. The major anatomy textbook, Gray's Anatomy, has recently been reorganized from a systems format to a regional format, in line with modern teaching methods.

Subjects: Medical Illustration

Instruction Time: Approximately three class periods

Materials needed:
  • Three sheets of drawing paper
  • Scissors
  • Colored pencils and pens
  • Stencil of skull
  • Photographs, diagrams, and pictures of human skulls and muscular structure to make a reference to
Objective(s): Show-Me Content Standard: Visual Art Standards for Missouri Schools 2009
Strand I: Product/Performance – Select and apply two-dimensional techniques, and processes to communicate ideas and solve challenging visual arts problems for 7th, 8th, 9th, and 10th Grades
  • Create smooth, continuous value through even pressure
  • Create a range of 4 smoothly graduated values through varied pressure
  • Define edge through variations in pressure or angle
  • Use media in various ways to create simulated and invented textures
  • Demonstrate proficiency using a single drawing media
  • Blend values/colors to create new values/colors
Strand IV: Interdisciplinary Connections, Explain the connections between Visual Art and Communication Arts, Math, Science or Social Studies
Show-Me Science Curriculum Guide Human Anatomy and Physiology – Characteristics and Interactions of Living Organisms: 1. There is a fundamental unity underlying the diversity of all living organisms
  • Define anatomical and directional terminology to appropriate structures.
Phase 1: Clarify goals and establish set
  • Students will study the differences between anatomical portraits and regular portraits.
  • Students will learn about the necessity of anatomical drawings in scientific study.
  • Students will draw their own versions of anatomically correct portraits to the proficiency of 80% required by the State of MO.
Phase 2: Demonstrate knowledge or skill
Task Analysis:
  • Students should visit the web sites provided by the teacher in the following bibliography.
  • Students will then work from a variety of pictorial references supplied in the classroom for the assignment.
  • The first drawing will illustrate a human skull, the second the muscle tissues of the human head, and the third the outside skin and hair of a anatomically correct human portrait.
  • Correct placement of eye, nose and mouth holes are demonstrated in the classroom sample and should be also cut from student drawings in a like manner
  • Anatomical portraits should be colored in naturalistically.
  • Staple all three drawings together in order of their appearance in real life skulls
Phase 3: Provide Guided Practice
  • The instructor will provide materials needed to describe visually the muscles and bone structure of the human head.
  • The instructor will describe and write out the details concerning the process of an anatomical portrait study.
  • The instructor will demonstrate the process involved with the layered drawing requirements.
Phase 4: Check for understanding and provide feedback – A standardized rubric will be used to analyze and critique each individual student’s artwork.

Phase 5: Provide extended practice and transfer – Students will be encouraged to create even more projects at home. Materials used during class may be duplicated in their own home. A handout for children to take home and color will be provided.

Reflections: Reflections are attached to rubric. There is room enough for both the instructor and student to respond.

Human Anatomy Bibliography:
Resources: The lesson plan adaptations and written content, excluding State Standards, is written and copyrighted by Kathy Grimm, 2009. The use of the ideas and 10% or less content constraint on previously published materials is met in accordance to United States copyright law. Some scientific definitions come from public domain resources. Interested parties may visit the following link to read about Fair Use and Teachers http://home.earthlink.net/~cnew/research.htm#Purpose%20of%20use

audubon's legacy lesson

Description: Audubon, a French-American ornithologist, hunter, and artist, developed his own methods for drawing birds. First, he killed them using fine shot. He then used wires to prop them into a natural position, unlike the common method of many ornithologists, who prepared and stuffed the specimens into a rigid pose. When working on a major specimen like an eagle, he would spend up to four 15-hour days, preparing, studying, and drawing it. His paintings of birds are set true-to-life in their natural habitat. He often portrayed them as if caught in motion, especially feeding or hunting. This was in stark contrast to the stiff representations of birds by his contemporaries, such as Alexander Wilson. Audubon based his paintings on his extensive field observations.
      He worked primarily with watercolor early on. He added colored chalk or pastel to add softness to feathers, especially those of owls and herons. He employed multiple layers of water-color, and sometimes used gouache. All species were drawn life size that accounts for the contorted poses of the larger birds as Audubon strove to fit them within the page size. Smaller species were usually placed on branches with berries, fruit, and flowers. He used several birds in a drawing to present all views of anatomy and wings. Larger birds were often placed in their ground habitat or perching on stumps. At times, as with woodpeckers, he combined several species on one page to offer contrasting features. He frequently depicted the birds' nests and eggs, and occasionally natural predators, such as snakes. He usually illustrated male and female variations, and sometimes juveniles. In later drawings, Audubon used assistants to render the habitat for him. Going beyond faithful renderings of anatomy, Audubon employed carefully constructed composition, drama, and slightly exaggerated poses to achieve artistic as well as scientific effects. Read more...


Subject: Fine Art/Biology

Instruction Time: Three sessions at least

Materials needed:
  • White drawing paper
  • Audubon prototype
  • Colored pencils and watercolors
Objective(s):
Show-Me Visual Art Standards for Missouri Schools
Strand I: Product/Performance – Select and apply two-dimensional media, techniques, and processes to communicate ideas and solve challenging visual art problems for all high school grades.
  • Select and apply drawing media and techniques that demonstrate both sensitivity and subtlety in use of media and informed decision making
Strand IV: Interdisciplinary Connections, Explain the connections between Visual Art and Communication Arts, Math, Science or Social Studies
  • Explain how historical events and social ideas are reflected in artworks from selected cultures or historical time periods.
Show-Me Standards for Biology
Strand 7: Scientific Inquiry – Science understanding is developed through the use of science process skills, scientific knowledge, scientific investigation, reasoning, and critical thinking
  • Concept B. Scientific inquiry relies upon gathering evidence from qualitative and quantitative observations. - Determine the appropriate tools and techniques to collect, analyze and interpret data.
Phase 1: Clarify goals and establish set
  • Students will study the watercolors and drawings of the famous orinthologist John James Audubon by observing a slide presentation, reading the attachment about him following this lesson plan and visiting web sites.
  • Students will copy prototypes of Audubon’s work and develop their skills in watercolors and colored pencils.
Phase 2: Demonstrate knowledge or skill
Task Analysis: rewrite below
  1. Students will research the life of Audubon through a selection of provided materials.
  2. Students will select a prototype of James Audubon.
  3. Make tracings or stencils to transfer the prototype to fine watercolor paper and paint.
Phase 3: Provide Guided Practice
  • The teacher will show a slide presentation of John James Audubon’s life.
  • The teacher will assign to each student a prototype to work from.
  • The teacher will demonstrate methods of watercolor and drawing to the class during the sessions.
Phase 4: Check for understanding and provide feedback – A standardized rubric will be used to analyze and critique each individual student’s artwork.

Phase 5: Provide extended practice and transfer – Students will be encouraged to create even more projects at home. Materials used during class and the research conducted on their own computers at home may be duplicated in their own home environment at very little expense.

Reflections: Reflections are attached to rubric. There is room enough for both the instructor and student to respond. Copies of reflections are returned to students to keep in their three ring binders. (phase 4 above)

Resources: The lesson plan adaptations and written content, excluding State Standards, is written and copyrighted by Kathy Grimm, 2009. The use of the ideas and 10% or less content constraint on previously published materials is met in accordance to United States copyright law. Some scientific definitions come from public domain resources. Interested parties may visit the following link to read about Fair Use and Teachers http://home.earthlink.net/~cnew/research.htm#Purpose%20of%20use

Saturday, May 27, 2017

posters and bulletin boards in the classroom

Posters and Bulletin Boards in The Classroom by Kate Coplan

To improve the appearance of an unattractive corner of a
Fifth Grade classroom in Baltimore, the teacher mounted
some children's art papers on walls and cabinets, placing
artistic objects nearby. With the colors nicely coordinated,
the arrangement made a pleasant reading corner.
       There are two major views in so far as classroom bulletin boards are concerned. One maintains that they must be showcases for students' work, with the youngsters themselves largely responsible for both content and presentation. The use by the teacher of posters and designs suggested or originating elsewhere is frowned upon, even though this might mean a vastly improved representation.
       The second view‚ with which this writer is in hearty accord‚ argues that the teacher, because of his broad experience and training, should provide most of the ideas and leadership, democratically inviting student participation, and using student work wherever practicable.
       However, if he is by talent or temperament artistically inadequate, he may legitimately borrow ideas, materials and/or techniques from any available source, in order to make classroom bulletin boards brighter, more attractive, more potentially educative. Certainly it is not plagiarism, but justifiable resourcefulness to adopt existing tools tending to stimulate learning, or to assist more readily in the dissemination of information.
       Where would the world be today if the great scientists, inventors, explorers, historians and medical researchers had ignored earlier developments in their respective fields, or failed to take into account the findings and accomplishments of their predecessors and contemporaries? Surely in teaching, as in other areas, there is the obligation to seize upon any constructive means likely to further the desired goals.
       James B. League, an enthusiastic and capable young teacher in Baltimore's elementary schools, has created many successful classroom bulletin board displays. Out of his experience he has evolved the following philosophy:
       "In order to proceed with maximum understanding it seems necessary to outline certain objectives or goals to be desired of visual materials. Without this statement, one flounders in confusion. The statement of objectives is also necessary from the point of view of establishing sub-goals to be used as means of arriving at the final goals. All material included in this statement is developed from my own classroom teaching experience, and is stated from my personal viewpoint only.

Objectives:
  • To create the maximum aesthetic 'value' with the abilities and materials available to each teacher
  • To create visual displays that have mind-appeal as well as eye-appeal
  • To provide high standards of visual display to serve as a basis of experience for children to develop their own background and eventually their own skills in this area
  • To develop the teacher's outlook to a point where he is sensitive to many ideas as potential points of departure for display or visual set-ups 
  • To remember that fundamentally visual material should be, after all, an integral part of the educative processes, and therefore a primary responsibility of the teacher, himself
       "The following list of points serves to establish some reasons why it can be argued that the teacher needs to take the dominant role in planning, preparation, and execution of visual materials. (This is counter to the position that children should perform this function, and the teacher take a rather subordinate role, because schools are more interested in developing healthy personalities than beautiful art products).

   1. The preparation of quality displays requires a perception and/or appreciation of several factors, among which are:
  •  a. an intellectual awareness of the salient points of the topic or subject to be displayed . . . i.e., how to create and capitalize on clever captions and related materials such as pictures, books, mock-ups, etc.
  •  a sensitivity to certain principles of color and design as adjuncts of the message to be conveyed
  • the ability to gauge the viewers' reaction- e.g., appropriate materials for age and/or mentality groups
   2. The final display should be more than a sum of its parts (i.e., color, design, caption, etc.). Rather, it should possess an organic unity which is the end product of intelligent planning
   3. The display should have 'sales' value as well as aesthetic value. It is the teacher who understands fully the message (however subtle or bold) he wishes to have communicated by the display materials
    4. In the final analysis, it is the teacher who must grow in experience and skill in the development of effective displays. He will need to use these skills at a high level of efficiency for many years to come. The sense of design, and 'healthy personality' can be developed in children in countless other ways
   5. The teacher, himself, needs to develop a forward look to keep his displays stimulating, and at the aforementioned high level of efficiency of execution

       "Certainly I do not advocate leaving the children out of the picture. That is not my intention at all. I should like to make these additional points, and a more resourceful teacher could probably come up with many others:

       1. In order to help the children to develop good display principles, one bulletin board in the room can be turned over to them. This could be done on a monthly rotating committee basis, four or five boys and girls working together. Such a setup would give all the children experience during the year in the planning and execution of exhibits. Being responsible for a single board, and knowing what was expected of them, they would probably feel more secure
       2. Because the teacher, in a sense, takes the dominant role, does not mean that the children are excluded during the preparation and execution activities. They could be included in various ways:
  • Designing and cutting letters from folded squares of construction paper, if no commercial alphabets are available 
  • Dismantling previous displays 
  • Preparing the backgrounds for new displays, by painting or lining
  • Helping in choice of pictures in planning stage
  • Assisting with mounting of pictures, maps, charts or other items
  • Getting books from library when these are to be used
  • Putting jackets on books
  • Filing dismantled materials for future use
  • Lending material from their personal collections: shells, stamps, baseball cards, rock specimens, etc.
       3. Children, quite naturally from a maturational point of view, lack the sensitivity and intellectual awareness to prepare displays with the necessary depth of understanding to carry a teaching message effectively
       4. Finally, children themselves love to see their own creative products displayed to best advantage"

Sample Bulletin Boards from Suburban Baltimore Schools: (coming soon)
  • Bulletin Board Displays from Kindergarten Classrooms
  • American History Bulletin Boards
  • Science and Math Related Ideas for Bulletin Boards
  • Ideas for Sharing Books through Bulletin Board Displays 
  • Bulletin Board Ideas About Religion
More Articles by Kate Coplan:
  • How to Communicate Through Visual Display
  • About The Use of Color In Bulletin Boards
  • Creative Poster Ideas
  • Attention-Getting Bulletin Boards
  • Helpful Hints About Crafting Displays
  • Taking Care of Display Materials

Monday, April 10, 2017

sculpt a few tacos with papier-mâché

Finished papier-mâché pulp taco samples.
Brief Description: These tacos look good enough to eat. Save some clean tissues and bags from your real dinner some evening and wrap these up realistically for a little one to enjoy as a gift.

Supply List:
  • sturdy paper plates
  • newsprint
  • brown paper bag
  • masking tape
  • white school glue
  • red and brown acrylic paint
  • soft, small paint brush
  • papier-mâché pulp
  • shredded yellow and green papers 
  • Mod Podge
Directions:
  1. Cut off the rim of the number of plates you will need to make a handful of mouth watering tacos. 
  2. Crush some newsprint to sandwich between your faux shells and tape these in place.
  3. Now layer shredded brown paper along with white school glue all over the surface of your taco shapes. Cover the surface completely. Always end with the surface being covered with the white glue. Set aside the taco shapes to dry overnight.
  4.  Now prep the papier-mâché pulp according to the directions on the package. Spread it over the inside surface of the taco only to imitate the ground beef. Let this dry out; it must harden completely before continuing with the project.
  5. Paint  papier-mâché pulp brown for ground beef and red for sliced tomatoes. Let dry.
  6. Paste shredded paper to mimic shredded cheese and lettuce.
  7. Add a layer of Mod Podge to the entire surface of all tacos to preserve the work.
Left, tacos start out looking something like this, but, Right, in the end look more like something you could eat.
Cute fake food crafts from GuideCentral.